Types of dental implants vary according to the type of classification. In general, when it comes to different types of dental implants, the most basic classification of implant types is as follows:
Types of Implants Based on their Position Compared to the Jawbone
Endosteal or Intraosseous Dental Implants
Intraosseous dental implants are currently the most common and safest type. Endosteal or intraosseous dental implants are suitable for most people. The most common type is a screw-shaped implant, which is widely used today and is inserted into the jawbone with the help of a dental drill. The bone then gradually grows and welds to the surface of the implant and integrates with it.
Bone Implants or Subperiosteal
This type of implant sits on the bone (under the gums) instead of sinking into the bone. In a subperiosteal implant, a metal skeleton is placed under the gums that contain one or more rods. After the gums are fused, the prosthesis stays in place. Artificial teeth are attached to bases that protrude from the gums.
Subperiosteal implants are used only if the patient’s jawbone is not suitable for holding a normal implant or if a person does not want to have a bone marrow transplant before surgery to place an implant in the jaw.
This type of implant has the least use and its operation is complex. This type of implant is used only in cases where there is not enough jaw bone for intraosseous dental implants. The zygomatic implant is implanted in the cheekbone, not the jawbone.
Types of Intraosseous Dental Implants
Screw Implants (Ordinary Dental Implants):
Screw implants are the most popular and common type of implant worldwide. Because this implant acts as a tooth root and has a similar shape, it is also called a root implant. The screw implant is designed in different shapes.
One of the first types of dental implants used in North America was the blade implant, which is now rarely used. Because screw implants have more advantages, most implant manufacturers have started making them and no longer offer blade implants. In the implant, a canal blade was created in the bone and the implant blade was placed in it, and in the last step, the dental veneer was attached to it. The implant can be single or multiple blades.
Transosseous dental implant is a very stable implant that acts like four standard screw implants. This implant is placed under the jaw and protrudes from the upper part of the jaw. A rod is attached to it to mount the denture. Few dentists do this treatment because it is very difficult and requires a lot of skill and in most cases hospitalization. However, this procedure is a good alternative to a conventional implant in situations where the mandible is much weakened or reduced, or very thin.
Types of Implants in Terms of Length and Diameter
Early dental implants had a smooth titanium surface, but different designs were added over time. In general, implant designers try to make the surface of the implant as close to the bone as possible. The roughness of the implant surface increases the contact surface of the implant so better stability is created. Adding a layer of hydroxyapatite makes the bone attach better to the implant because the bone is made of the same material.
But the roughness of the implant surface also increases the risk of contamination and infection. For this reason, there are implants with a smooth surface, and some implants have parts of their surface smooth and others rough. An implant company has developed implants with a rough surface and globular areas such as microscopy, which significantly increases the surface area of the implant. This makes it possible to use smaller implants with higher stability (especially in those with low bone volume).
Types of Implants in Terms of Connection with the Abutment
The head of the dental implant is the area that must be attached to an intermediate piece called the abutment, and the dental veneer is also installed on the abutment. The abutment acts like a shaved crown on a tooth that is ready to be veneered and holds the crown.
The head of the implant is divided into three categories in terms of connection to the abutment:
- Internal hexagonal connection: The hexagonal shape of the implant head is a hole in which the abutment is inserted and screwed (female connection).
- External hexagonal connection: The hexagonal shape of the implant head is a protrusion in which the abutment is screwed (male connection).
- Internal octagonal connection: The implant head hole has an octagonal shape in which the abutment is sunk and screwed (female connection).
Types of Implants in Terms of Attaching the Cover to the Abutment
- Adhesive: In this method, the cover is glued to the abutment. The same thing is done with natural tooth veneers.
- Screw: In this method, the cover is connected to the abutment with a screw. The screw location on the tooth is then filled and smoothed with a dental filler such as composite.
Types of Implants Based on Implants
- Single implants: These are ordinary implants that have a dental veneer mounted on each implant base.
- Mini-Implant-Based Denture: One of the implant prostheses used in people who have lost most or all of their teeth. This procedure is cheaper than single implants and requires less surgery and incisions. Also, due to the use of mini-implants instead of implants, the surgery is easier and the recovery period is shorter. However, it should be noted that because the mini-implant is thinner, it is less tolerant of pressure.
- Four implant dentures: In this method, a complete set of dentures up or down is fixed on four implants. The advantage of this method is that it does not require multiple bone grafts and multiple surgeries, and it costs much less. But the problem is that while you wait for the bone to heal, you have to be careful about what you eat so that there is no pressure on the implants. Six months after the implant hardens, the main denture is prepared and mounted on the implant, ending the eating restriction.
- Implant-based bridge: The prosthesis is similar to a normal bridge, but instead of using natural teeth to support the bridge, implant teeth are used.
Types of Dental Implants in Terms of Treatment Steps
- Immediate implant: In the instant implant method, in the same session that the damaged tooth is extracted, the implant is placed in the bone and then the veneer is attached to it. Of course, this cover is temporary and you are not going to chew with it because there should be no pressure on the implant. After a few months, the main veneer is attached to the tooth.
- One-step implant: In this method, after the implant placement surgery, the cap is closed with a screw, but the gums are not pulled on it, but the gums are sewn around the implant. This is done so that a few months later when the veneer is attached, there is no need for pre-surgery to open the implant. In a single-stage implant, the tooth space remains empty for several months for the bone to fuse with the implant.
- Two-stage implant: This procedure requires two surgeries. One time to place the implant and the second time to open the gums on the implant and connect the abutment and veneer. However, the second surgery is very simple and has a short recovery period. The advantage is that the implant is better protected under the gums and there is less risk of contamination or pressure.